Developing a medical picture book for reducing venipuncture distress in preschool-aged children

Source: International Journal of Nursing Practice

Ying Tsao, Hui-Chen Kuo, Hsui-Chuan Lee and Shuenn-Jiun Yiin
Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/ijn.12569

Abstract

Aim

Distress associated with needle-related procedures is a major concern in preschool-aged children nursing. This study developed a medical picture book for supporting preschool-aged children facing a venipuncture and determined the effectiveness of such a book intervention in decreasing behavioural distress.

Methods

The picture book was designed in 3 stages: developing stories on medical situations, penning the text, and drafting the book. We conducted a quasiexperimental study to examine the effectiveness of the book. The behavioural distress of the control and picture book groups were assessed before, during, and after the intervention by using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised (OSBD-R).

Results

We created a 12-page picture book, Sick Rui-Rui Bear, in which cartoon characters were depicted undergoing venipunctures, as a guide for vein injection and for facilitating positive venipuncture outcomes in preschool-aged children. Over time, the OSBD-R scores of the picture book group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < .001).

Conclusion

We recommend the picture book be routinely read and used during venipunctures to decrease procedural distress in preschool-aged children.

SUMMARY STATEMENT
What is already known about this topic?

  • Venipunctures may cause varying levels of distress in preschool-aged children. Pain is experienced during venipunctures, which often terrifies children and prolongs the intravenous procedures and the associated displeasure.
  • Although some picture books have been used to describe the medical procedures to children, to our knowledge, the process of venipunctures has not been explained for preschool-aged children.

What this paper adds: (research findings/key new information)

  • We created a picture book titled Sick Rui-Rui Bear, in which cartoon characters were depicted as receiving venipunctures. This 12-page book is a guide to vein injection and is aimed at facilitating excellent venipuncture outcomes for preschool-aged children.
  • We adopted analytical statistics to compare the behavioural distress scores of the control and venipuncture picture book groups. Results showed that the picture book group had significantly lower scores of OSBD-R over time than that of the control group.

The implications of this paper: (how findings influence or can be used to change policy/practice/research/education)

  • When administering a venipuncture, nurses should be concerned about the distress in preschool-aged children. Interaction among nurses, parents, and preschool-aged children can be stimulated by providing them with a venipuncture picture book, thereby enabling preschool-aged children to face such a medical treatment experience.
  • Nurses can use a venipuncture picture book to reduce distress in preschool-aged children during vein injection.

 

 

Advocacy Skill Building Toolkit – Rural RTC

Advocacy Skill Building Toolkit

Source: Advocacy Skill Building Toolkit – RTC:Rural

This toolkit is a guide for Centers for Independent Living and others to conduct interactive and engaging workshops to facilitate the development of advocacy skills of emerging Independent Living leaders and youth with disabilities. It describes how to introduce advocacy through the facilitation of unique activities and discussions, identifying issues of importance, and putting advocacy skills into practice. A unique approach presented in this toolkit is the use of improv to introduce, invite, and engage others into and with the world of advocacy.

Using improv hones communication and public speaking skills, stimulates fast thinking, and encourages engagement with ideas, all skills that are important for effective advocacy. Improv also provides a supportive environment that allows participants to take risks, try out new ideas, and build their confidence. The activities incorporate different learning styles, and can easily be modified to accommodate everyone.

An important part of advocacy, no matter if the goal is to help one person or many, is establishing a confident voice, developed and supported by a community of peer support. This workshop and accompanying toolkit materials give participants the opportunity to explore their voices, build confidence, and display their skills both verbally as well as in written form. The intent is to provide a safe space among peers and trusted facilitators to introduce the concept of both group and self-advocacy.

Crisis Trends – Crisis Text Line

Crisis Trends aims to empower journalists, researchers, school administrators, parents and all citizens to understand the crises Americans face so we can work together to prevent future crises from happening.

Source: Crisis Trends – Crisis Text Line

Explore trends across texter conversations across all states in the U.S. http://crisistrends.org/

Crisis Text Line: Text 741-741 from anywhere in the USA, anytime, about any type of crisis.

Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2015

…for each age group measured except persons age 65 or older, the rate of violent victimization against persons with disabilities was at least 2.5 times the unadjusted rate for those without disabilities.

…persons with cognitive disabilities had the highest victimization rate among the disability types measured for total violent crime…

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) – Crime Against Persons with Disabilities, 2009-2015 – Statistical Tables

Erika Harrell, Ph.D., BJS Statistician

July 11, 2017    NCJ 250632

Presents 2009-2015 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) estimates of nonfatal violent crime (rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault) against persons age 12 or older with disabilities. Disabilities are classified according to six limitations: hearing, vision, cognitive, ambulatory, self-care, and independent living. The report compares the victimization of persons with and without disabilities living in noninstitutionalized households, including distributions by sex, race, Hispanic origin, age, disability type, and other victim characteristics. It also includes crime characteristics, such as victim-offender relationship, time of crime, reporting to police, and use of victim services agencies. NCVS data were combined with data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey to generate victimization rates.

Highlights:

  • During the 5-year aggregate period from 2011 to 2015, for each age group measured except persons age 65 or older, the rate of violent victimization against persons with disabilities was at least 2.5 times the unadjusted rate for those without disabilities.
  • Among those with disabilities, persons ages 12 to 15 (144.1 per 1,000 age 12 or older) had the highest rate of violent victimization among all age groups measured.
  • The rate of violent victimization against males with disabilities was 31.8 per 1,000, compared to 14.1 per 1,000 males without disabilities.
  • For females with disabilities, the rate of violent victimization was 32.8 per 1,000, compared to 11.4 per 1,000 females without disabilities.
  • Males and females had similar rates of total violent victimization in every disability type measured, except independent living disabilities.

Part of the Crime Against People with Disabilities Series

Summary (PDF 197K)
PDF (1M)
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Help for using BJS products

About the Source Data
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
To cite this product, use the following link:
http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=5986

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Mirror, Mirror 2017: International Comparison Reflects Flaws and Opportunities for Better U.S. Health Care

In the United States—more than in 11 other wealthy countries—the health care you receive varies with your level of income, according to a new Commonwealth Fund report.

Source: Mirror, Mirror 2017: International Comparison Reflects Flaws and Opportunities for Better U.S. Health Care

The United States Health System Falls Short

 The United States spends far more on health care than other high-income countries, with spending levels that rose continuously over the past three decades (Exhibit 1). Yet the U.S. population has poorer health than other countries. 1 Life expectancy, after improving for several decades, worsened in recent years for some populations, aggravated by the opioid crisis. 2 In addition, as the baby boom population ages, more people in the U.S.—and all over the world—are living with age-related disabilities and chronic disease, placing pressure on health care systems to respond.

Timely and accessible health care could mitigate many of these challenges, but the U.S. health care system falls short, failing to deliver indicated services reliably to all who could benefit. 3 In particular, poor access to primary care has contributed to inadequate prevention and management of chronic diseases, delayed diagnoses, incomplete adherence to treatments, wasteful overuse of drugs and technologies, and coordination and safety problems.

This report uses recent data to compare health care system performance in the U.S. with that of 10 other high-income countries and considers the different approaches to health care organization and delivery that can contribute to top performance. We based our analysis on 72 indicators that measure performance in five domains important to policymakers, providers, patients, and the public: Care Process, Access, Administrative Efficiency, Equity, and Health Care Outcomes.

Our data come from a variety of sources. One is comparative survey research. Since 1998, The Commonwealth Fund, in collaboration with international partners, has supported surveys of patients and primary care physicians in advanced countries, collecting information for a standardized set of metrics on health system performance. Other comparative data are drawn from the most recent reports of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, and the World Health Organization (WHO).

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How to Make Healthcare Accessible for All

Source: University of Washington, Healthy Aging RRTC

Healthcare access is important for all individuals, especially for people with disabilities. However, people with disabilities don’t always receive the healthcare they need. Several barriers can make it harder for them to access critical healthcare services or build optimal working relationships with their providers. Fortunately, by being aware of these barriers, we can overcome them with changes in design, training, and policy.

Download How to Make Healthcare Accessible for All

BUILDing Strong Foundations Farm to Early Care and Education: Working to Equalize Health and Education Outcomes

Source: BUILD Initiative

By Lacy Stephens, Farm to Early Care and Education Associate, National Farm to School Network

Good nutrition and good educational outcomes for young children are inextricably linked. Yet, there is little consistency in terms of the quality of the food that is offered in early care settings. Given that approximately 60 percent of US children under the age of six spend time in some sort of childcare (or non-parental care) setting on a weekly basis, and typically eat breakfast and lunch (and possibly an afternoon snack) at these sites, ensuring the quality of the food is essential.

The Good Food, Great Kids policy overview and case studies, developed in partnership with the National Farm to School Network and the BUILD Initiative, is intended both to share a broad spectrum of existing information about various experiences in building farm-to-ECE supportive policies and to point out how forging greater connections between current policies and the work of farm to ECE can benefit early childcare centers, children, and families.

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The Community Guide to Adult Oral Health Program Implementation

Source: The Oral Health Website

Download Oral Health Guide

The Community Guide to Adult Oral Health Program Implementation (Oral Health Guide), along with the corresponding online database of community-based oral health programs, aims to help groups at the state and local levels start or enhance their own oral health programs for older adults. Here, community-based entities can find key tips, case studies, interactive tools, and other sources of support for creating cost-effective, sustainable programs. The Oral Health Guide can help you replicate or expand an existing program or take steps to design and implement a new program. In addition, recognizing the connection between oral health and overall health, the Oral Health Guide contains advice and links to resources concerning interprofessional collaboration to serve older adults’ oral health needs.

The Oral Health Guide begins with an introduction and includes the following eight key steps to implementation:

  1. Conduct a Needs Assessment: Assessing the specific oral health needs of older adults in your community is a vital first step to implementation.
  2. Develop a Vision, Mission, and Goals: Developing your program’s vision, mission, and goals helps ensure that staff and community partners are working toward a common objective.
  3. Establish Partnerships: Collaborating with a variety of organizations can help strengthen the planning process for a community-based oral health program for older adults and can expand the program’s impact.
  4. Design the Program: As you define your program’s scope, you might choose to replicate, or copy, an existing program; adapt an existing program; or design an entirely new program.
  5. Finance the Program: Obtaining funding is an important step to starting your program and sustaining it over the long term.
  6. Implement the Program: You must consider several key steps as you proceed from planning and preparation to program operations and services delivery.
  7. Evaluate the Program: During the early planning stages of your program, before you start serving older adults, developing an evaluation plan that reflects your program’s vision and mission is imperative.
  8. Ensure Sustainability: Sharing your program results with partners, funders, and other community stakeholders is fundamental to maintain existing relationships, attract support and buy-in from your community, and thereby ensure your program’s long-term sustainability.

The Oral Health Guide also contains an appendix of funding sources for existing oral health programs and acknowledgments for individuals who helped develop the Oral Health Guide.

You can also download a hardcopy version of the Oral Health Guide (PDF, 1.9 MB).

Health, United States, 2016

Source: CDC.gov

Download Health, United States, 2016: Chartbook on Longterm Trends in Health

Health, United States, 2016 is the 40th report on the health status of the nation and is submitted by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services to the President and the Congress of the United States in compliance with Section 308 of the Public Health Service Act. This report was compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

The Health, United States series presents an annual overview of national trends in health statistics. The report contains a Chartbook that assesses the nation’s health by presenting trends and current information on selected measures of morbidity, mortality, health care utilization and access, health risk factors, prevention, health insurance, and personal health care expenditures. This year’s Chartbook focuses on long-term trends in health. The report also contains 114 Trend Tables organized around four major subject areas: health status and determinants, health care utilization, health care resources, and health care expenditures. A companion report—Health, United States: In Brief—features information extracted from the full report. The complete report and related data products are available on the Health, United States website at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm.

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